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PHL 320 Entire Course

PHL/320T

CRITICAL THINKING AND DECISION MAKING IN BUSINESS

 

The Latest Version

 PHL 320 Week 1 Practice: Week 1 Knowledge Check
 

Complete the “Week 1 Knowledge Check” in Connect®.

Note: You have unlimited attempts available to complete this practice assignment. The highest scored attempt will be recorded. These assignments have earlier due dates, so plan accordingly. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don’t worry, this might happen after your due date.

 

The more support the premise of an inductive argument provides for the conclusion, the stronger the argument.

True or False

 

 

A valid argument cannot have any false premises.

True or False

 

 

 

 

In order to be sound, an argument must be

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

valid and strong.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

deductive and strong.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

valid and have true premises.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

inductive and have true conclusions.

 

 

 

 

 

The bandwagon effect is potentially a powerful source of cognitive distortion.

True or False

 

 

Whether a subjective claim is true or false is independent of whether people think it is true or false.

True or False

 

 

An unconscious tendency to align one’s thinking with that of other people is known as the

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

bandwagon effect.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

availability heuristic.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

confirmation bias.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

belief bias.

 

 

Some opinions are not subjective, because their truth or falsity is independent of what people think.

True or False

 

 

Which of the following is an objective claim?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Sailing is the most soothing activity.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Yellow is the most pleasant color to look at.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Jason has great dressing sense.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Driving while drowsy is dangerous.

 

 

If we know that an argument is weak, then we know that the conclusion

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

is false.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

is true.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

may or may not be true.

 

 

Which of the following involves unconsciously assigning a probability to a type of event on the basis of how often one thinks of events of that type?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Factual claim

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

In-group bias

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Availability heuristic

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Obscure issue

 

 

 

 

 

Which of the following is a subjective claim?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Leno tells better jokes than Letterman.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Yellow is Jennifer’s favorite color.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Pit vipers can strike a warm-blooded animal even when it is pitch dark.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

There is life on Mars.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“The Republicans’ proposal to cut taxes on capital gains (profits from selling real estate, stocks, and bonds) is not a sop for the wealthy. It is a way to stimulate investment and ultimately to create jobs. That’s why it is in everyone’s interest to support the proposal.”

Which of the following best states the primary issue discussed in the passage?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

whether the proposal is a sop for the wealthy

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

whether the proposal is a way to stimulate investment and ultimately to create jobs

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

whether stimulating investment and creating jobs is a good thing

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

whether it is in everyone’s interest to support the proposal

 

 

 

“Tommy has great fashion sense” is an objective claim.

True or False

 

 

 

Which of the following involves unconsciously assigning a probability to a type of event on the basis of how often one thinks of events of that type?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Factual claim

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

In-group bias

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Availability heuristic

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Obscure issue

 

 

 

 

 

Which of the following is a subjective claim?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Staring at the sun will damage your eyes.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

You shouldn’t buy that car because it is ugly.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

On a baseball field, the center of the pitcher’s mound is 59 feet from home plate.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Pit vipers can strike a warm-blooded animal even when it is pitch dark.

 

 

 

 

 

Which of the following is true of cognitive biases?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

They evaluate conclusions based on evidence.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

They help process information accurately.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

They interfere with one’s ability to think clearly.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

They help people reason objectively.

 

 

 

 

All vice-presidents in the company drive a Mercedes. Since Eric is a vice-president, he must also drive a Mercedes.” This argument is best considered

rev: 03_01_2018_QC_CS-120197

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

inductive.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

deductive.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Sheila’s clarinet is French. It’s a Leblanc, and all Leblanc instruments are made in France.”

This argument is best considered

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

inductive

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

deductive.

 

 

 

“I think there should be a speed limit for the ‘spandex’ bicycle racers that feel the need to run those of us that don’t ride or walk as fast off the road and into the bushes in Bidwell Park. The park is for everyone’s pleasure and enjoyment, and more often than not it is spoiled by those few who feel they are superior to the rest of us. Approximately eight out of ten times when my family and I have ridden our bikes through the park at least one of us has just about been plowed over by one of those egotistical speeders.”—From a letter to the editor

Which of the following best states the primary issue discussed in the passage?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

whether there should be a speed limit for bicycle racers

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

whether bicycle racers are egotistical

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

whether the park is for everyone’s pleasure

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

whether outings to the park are frequently spoiled by bicycle racers

 

 

 

 

“Sheila’s clarinet is French. It’s a Leblanc, and all Leblanc instruments are made in France.”

This argument is best considered

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

inductive

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

deductive.

 

 

 

 

The inclination that people may have to assume that their attitudes and those held by people around them are shared by society at large is known as

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

the fundamental attribution error.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

the false consensus effect.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

negativity bias.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

confirmation bias.

 

 

 

 

In an inductive argument, the premise demonstrates or proves the conclusion.

True or False

False

 

 

 

 

The tendency to not appreciate that others’ behavior is as much constrained by events and circumstances as our own would be if we were in their position is known as the

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

false consensus effect.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

fundamental attribution error.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

bandwagon effect.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

overconfidence effect.

 

 

 

 

“Jose is taller than Bill, and Bill is taller than Margaret. Therefore, Jose is taller than Margaret.” This argument is best considered

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

inductive.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

deductive.

 

 

 

 

 

 

If we know that an argument is weak, then we know that the conclusion

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

is false.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

is true.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

may or may not be true.

 

 

 

 

Which of the following involves unconsciously assigning a probability to a type of event on the basis of how often one thinks of events of that type?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Factual claim

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

In-group bias

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Availability heuristic

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Obscure issue

 

 

 
 

 

PHL 320 Week 1 Apply: Creating an Argument
 

Complete the “Creating an Argument” homework assignment in Connect®.

For each statement, select the conclusion statement that would turn these statements into arguments.

Note: You have only 1 attempt available to complete this assignment. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don’t worry, this might happen after your due date.

 

 
 

Tipsarevic is unlikely to win the U.S. Open this year.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

He will be a strong competitor, though.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Smith is also unlikely to win the U.S. Open this year.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

He has a nagging leg injury, plus he doesn’t have the drive he once had.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

He did not win the U.S. Open last year either.

 

 

John Montgomery has been the Eastern Baseball League’s best closer this season. Unfortunately, when a closer gets shelled, as Montgomery did last night, it takes him a while to recover.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

There are other pitchers on his team who could be closers.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

In fact, his team may want to think about trading him.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Nobody will say he is the best closer after that performance.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

He may never recover.

 

 

There is trouble in the Middle East, there is a recession at home, and all economic indicators are trending downward.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

It would be nice to see economic indicators trending upward instead.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Most news media agree that this is the case.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

There are similar conditions in other regions throughout the world.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

It seems likely, then, that the only way the stock market can go is down.

 

 

 

“It may be true that people, not guns, kill people.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

There are many reasons why people kill people.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

But people with guns kill more people than people without guns. As long as the number of lethal weapons in the hands of the American people continues to grow, so will the murder rate.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

It may also be true that people hate one another.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

There are a lot of people who own guns.”

 

 

 

As a long-time customer, you’re already taking advantage of our money management expertise and variety of investment choices.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

We have spent years building this expertise and developing a variety of investment choices.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

That’s a good reason for consolidating your other eligible assets into an IRA with us.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

We always like to offer our long-time customers additional options.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Many other customers also take advantage of our expertise and variety.

 

 

 

Yes, I charge a little more than other dentists.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

But I feel I give better service. So my billing practices are justified.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

But I don’t charge as much as I could.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

You should see what my dentist charges me, though.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

And I offer services that other dentists don’t always offer.

 

 

 

Pornography often depicts women as servants or slaves or as otherwise inferior to men.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Pornography is much more prevalent than it used to be thanks to the Internet.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

In light of that, it seems reasonable to expect to find more women than men who are upset by pornography.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Most pornography is created by men.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Pornography depicts women in other ways, as well.

 

 

 

Fears that chemicals in teething rings and soft plastic toys may cause cancer may be justified.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Chemicals have been used in such items for years.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Cancer is one of the biggest health concerns society faces.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

There are many other things that also cause cancer.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Last week, the Consumer Product Safety Commission issued a report confirming that low amounts of DEHP, known to cause liver cancer in lab animals, may be absorbed from certain infant products.

 

 

 

The Carrie Diaries isn’t very good.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

It’s just a repackage of Sex and the City.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

I don’t know what the author was thinking when they wrote it.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

It is one of many bad books I’ve read lately.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

I checked it out of the library because I thought it would be good.

 

 

 

Carl would like to help out, but he won’t be in town.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

He might not have been much help anyway.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

We’ll have to find someone else who owns a truck.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

He should be back in town the following week.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

He is going to visit his grandmother, who is ill.

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

PHL 320 Week 2 Practice: Week 2 Knowledge Check
 

Complete the “Week 2 Knowledge Check” in Connect®.

Note: You have unlimited attempts available to complete this practice assignment. The highest scored attempt will be recorded. These assignments have earlier due dates, so plan accordingly. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don’t worry, this might happen after your due date.

 

 
 

Classify the following: “A juice harp is a harmonica.”

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

definition by example

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

definition by synonym

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

analytical definition

 

 

 

Classify the following: “‘Adult beverage’ is anything that will get you drunk and make you act like an adolescent.”

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

definition by example

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

definition by synonym

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

analytical definition

 

 

 

Classify the following: “When Dr. Leakey said Lucy’s walk was bipedal, he meant her walk was upright.”

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

definition by example

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

definition by synonym

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

analytical definition

 

 

 

 

Classify the following: “Being an octogenarian is being in one’s eighties.”

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

definition by example

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

definition by synonym

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

analytical definition

 

 

 

 

The word “centaur” can be defined by example.

True or False

 

 

 

 

If you want to make a word’s meaning more precise, a definition by synonym will work better than an analytical definition.

True or False

 

 

 

Classify the following: “‘Freedom’ is just another word for nothing left to lose.”—Kris Kristofferson

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

definition by example

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

definition by synonym

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

analytical definition

 

 

 

Classify the following: “Dr. Monfort thinks ‘new-age’ is another word for mindless.”

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

definition by example

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

definition by synonym

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

analytical definition

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

PHL 320 Week 2 Apply: Vague Statements
 

Complete the “Vague Statements” homework assignment in Connect®.

Each of the questions in Connect® contains a statement in vague language. For each question, select the rewritten statement that contains the clearest language.

Note: You have only 1 attempt available to complete assignments. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don’t worry; this might happen after your due date.

 

 
 

Advertisement: “The Aquaclear water filter—it really will improve the taste and odor of your water.”  Which of the following is rewritten in language that is clear rather than vague?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

The Aquaclear water filter will improve your life.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

The Aqaclear water filter change the way you think about water filters.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

The Aquaclear water filter will make you think you have never really had water before.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

The Aquaclear water filter will improve the taste and odor of your water by removing dirt and minerals from the water.

 

 

Property owner, showing his property to a potential buyer: “The lot extends back to about where that large oak tree stands.”

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

The lot in back ends at the property line.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

The lot extends almost to where that large oak tree stands.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

The lot extends 50 feet from the back of the house, which is near the oak tree.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

We tend to think of the oak tree as the property line, since it is near enough.

 

 

 

“Renaissance music just doesn’t do it for me.”

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“Renaissance music simply lulls me to sleep.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“I don’t think I prefer to listen to Renaissance music.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“There is just something about Renaissance music I don’t like.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“I can’t say why it is I don’t care for Renaissance music.”

 

 

It seems clear that within the next ten years, they’ll have produced a machine that can really think.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

In the next 10 years, the company will have produced a machine that outperforms how a human thinks and makes day-to-day decisions.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Someday they’ll have produced a machine that can think like a human.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

It seems clear that within the next 10 years, they should make some progress in developing thinking machines.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

In the next 10 years, they should be able to produce a machine that can think in some fashion.

 

 

 

The president has determined that tax reform will be his first priority during his second term in office.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Some believe the president will make tax reform a priority in his second term.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

The president will tackle tax reform as his first priority during his second term in office, which is in two years.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

The president has promised to make tax reform a priority.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

The president thinks that tax reform will be a priority during his second term.

 

 

 

“If I were you, I’d watch out for the boss.”

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“Watch out for the boss; he’s grumpy today.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“If I were you, I’d keep a close eye out for the boss.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“You may want to avoid the boss today if you can.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“There’s the boss; you may want to head the other way.”

 

 

Doctor: “The arrhythmia you are experiencing indicates you should lay off jogging for a while.”

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“The arrhythmia you are experiencing is a serious issue that requires treatment.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“The arrhythmia you are experiencing indicates you should consider jogging less often.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“Your arrhythmia makes me think you should be careful when you jog.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“Because your heart beats too fast, you should stop jogging for the next 30 days. “

 

 

 

“Well, let’s see. To get to the Woodward Mall, go down this street a couple of blocks and then turn right. Go through several stoplights, turn left, and go just a short way. You can’t miss it.”

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“You want the Woodward Mall? Just head west and you’ll see it in front of you. You can’t miss it.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“The Woodward Mall? You may want to use your GPS, since getting there is a little tricky.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“In order to get to Woodward Mall, drive south on Main Street for two blocks until you get to Dover Street. After you get to Dover Street, make a right on Foxwood Drive. You will drive on Foxwood Drive for three miles until you see Woodward Lane. Turn left on Woodward Lane, and you have arrived at Woodward Mall.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“Well, let’s see. To get to the Woodward Mall, you’re going to need to make three lefts and then a right. You can’t miss it.”

 

 

 

Said at a party: “What did I think of the concert? Yeah, I was at the concert.”

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“What did I think of the concert? I guess I had a good time.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“What did I think of the concert? I haven’t really thought about it.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“What did I think of the concert? I thought it was pretty good. You should have been there.”

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

“What did I think of the concert? I haven’t really thought about it.”

 

 

 

During his first news conference of the year, the president said today that his administration was going to crack down even harder on international terrorism.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

During his first news conference of the year, the president admitted that the war on international terrorism would be long and difficult.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

During the president’s first news conference of the year, the administration outlined processes and procedures it will put in place to combat international terrorism.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

During his first news conference of the year, the president backed away from earlier statements about how his administration was going to crack down even harder on international terrorism.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

During his first news conference of the year, the president will address what he plans to do about international terrorism.

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

PHL 320 Week 3 Practice: Week 3 Knowledge Check
 

Complete the “Week 3 Knowledge Check” in Connect®.

Note: You have unlimited attempts available to complete this practice assignment. The highest scored attempt will be recorded. These assignments have earlier due dates, so plan accordingly. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don’t worry, this might happen after your due date.

 

 
 

Identifying Statistical Syllogisms and Inductive Generalizations from Samples 4

 

Determine whether each of the following is a statistical syllogism, inductive generalization from a sample, or neither.

 

 

 

 

Almost every Shih tzu I’ve run into is smart; there probably aren’t any anywhere that aren’t.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A majority of Republicans favor immigration reform, and Horace is a Republican. Connect the dots.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sally is apt to be cranky; she usually is when she skips breakfast.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comcast service has improved a lot over the past year, judging from what has happened around here.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It will still be cool there in June; the elevation at Denver is over 5,000 feet.
 

 

 

 

 

 

Identifying the Analogues and Attributes of Interest 2

 

In each item, identify the analogues and the attribute of interest.

 

 

 

 

Tell you what, this ant poison looks like Windex. I bet we can clean the windows with it.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You need strong, quick fingers if you’re going to play a violin or a viola. Angus is great on the violin; he’d probably be great on the viola, too.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I liked Will Smith’s last movie, so I’ll probably like this one too, especially because they have the same story line.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Find the claim described below and determine whether it is equivalent to the claim you began with.

 

(Note: In your response, make sure to avoid using contractions so that you are not scored inly. For example, use “are not” instead of “aren’t.”)

 

Find the obverse of “Some Arabs are Christians.”

 

 

 

 

Find the claim described below and determine whether it is equivalent to the claim you began with.

 

(Note: In your response, make sure to avoid using contractions so that you are not scored inly. For example, use “are not” instead of “aren’t.”)

 

 

Find the converse of “Some Kurds are not Christians.”

 

 

 

 

Match the following terms with their truth-functional symbols.

 

Drag each concept to its corresponding definition.

A system of logic that specifies the logical relationships among truth-functional claims—claims whose truth values depend solely on the truth values of their simplest component parts.

A letter that stands for a claim.

A table that lists all possible combinations of truth values for the claim variables in a symbolized claim or argument and then specifies the truth value of the claim or claims for each of those possible combinations.

The contradictory of a given claim; the negation of claim P is usually given as “not-P.”

A compound claim made from two simpler claims; it is true if and only if both of the simpler claims that compose it are true.

A compound claim made up of two simpler claims; it is false only if both of the simpler claims that make it up are false.

A claim that state-of-affairs A cannot hold without state-of-affairs B holding as well—for example, “If A, then B.” The A-part of the claim is called the “antecedent”; the B-part is called the “consequent.”

This occurs if and only if two claims have exactly the same truth table.

 

 

 

Find the claim described below and determine whether it is equivalent to the claim you began with.

 

(Note: In your response, make sure to avoid using contractions so that you are not scored inly. For example, use “are not” instead of “aren’t.”)

 

Find the contrapositive of “No Sunnis are Christians.”

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

PHL 320 Week 3 Apply: Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
 

Complete the “Inductive and Deductive Reasoning” homework assignment in Connect®.

Note: You have only 1 attempt available to complete assignments. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don’t worry; this might happen after your due date

 

 
 

Required information

 

Symbolizing Arguments using “If…Then…” and “not-…”

 

Symbolize the following arguments using “if . . . then . . .” and “not- . . .” statements in place of the special symbols → and  ~. (Note: Do not enter any periods in your response.)

 

Symbolizing Arguments using “If…Then…” and “not-…” (1)

Madderly wins the decision, provided that the referee scores the fight in Madderly’s favor.

The referee did score the fight in favor of Madderly.

Therefore, Madderly wins the decision. R = Referee scores the fight in Madderly’s favor

M = Madderly wins the decision.

 

 

 

Required information

 

Symbolizing Arguments using “If…Then…” and “not-…”

 

Symbolize the following arguments using “if . . . then . . .” and “not- . . .” statements in place of the special symbols → and  ~. (Note: Do not enter any periods in your response.)

 

Symbolizing Arguments using “If…Then…” and “not-…” (2)

The generator works.

The generator works only if the polarity of the circuit has been reversed.

The polarity of the circuit has been reversed.       G = The generator works.

P = Polarity has been reversed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Required information

 

Symbolizing Arguments using “If…Then…” and “not-…”

 

Symbolize the following arguments using “if . . . then . . .” and “not- . . .” statements in place of the special symbols → and  ~. (Note: Do not enter any periods in your response.)

 

Symbolizing Arguments using “If…Then…” and “not-…” (3)

Failure to melt at 2,600 degrees is sufficient for determining that this item is not made of steel.

The item failed to melt at 2,600 degrees.

The item is not made of steel.       F = The item fails to melt at 2600 degrees.

S = The item is made of steel.

 

 

 

 

 

Required information

 

Symbolizing Arguments using “If…Then…” and “not-…”

 

Symbolize the following arguments using “if . . . then . . .” and “not- . . .” statements in place of the special symbols → and  ~. (Note: Do not enter any periods in your response.)

 

Symbolizing Arguments using “If…Then…” and “not-…” (4)

If the new generator will work, then the polarity of the circuit has been reversed.

But the polarity of the circuit has not been reversed.

The new generator will not work.  G = New generator will work.

P = Polarity has been reversed.

 

 

 

 

Providing Causal Hypotheses to Explain Findings 1

 

Can mere reading of articles about dieting cause teenage girls to resort to extreme weight-loss measures? According to a study published in the journal Pediatrics (reported by Carla K. Johnson of the Associated Press in January 2007), the answer might well be yes. In the study, female middle-school students were interviewed in 1999 and again in 2004, and their heights and weights were measured. Those in the first interview who said they frequently read magazine articles about dieting were more likely than those who said they never read such articles to report in the second survey that they indulged in extreme weight-loss measures like vomiting and taking laxatives. The effect was present whether or not the girls were overweight or considered their weight important when they started reading the articles, the researchers said.

 

Propose two explanations for the findings that seem likely or possible.

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

PHL 320 Week 4 Practice: Week 4 Knowledge Check
 

Complete the “Week 4 Knowledge Check” in Connect®.

Note: You have unlimited attempts available to complete this practice assignment. The highest scored attempt will be recorded. These assignments have earlier due dates, so plan accordingly. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don’t worry, this might happen after your due date.

 

Materials
 

 

 
 

“They say Japanese carmakers put out the best cars in the world, all things considered. But that can’t be right—the Toyota I bought last year had to be returned to the shop five times!” The sample is

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

my Toyota.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Japanese cars.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

the best cars in the world.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maude and Clyde are discussing whether to buy this nice little cottage. Using the dropdown menus, classify the fallacies in their conversation (marked in boldface).

 

 

 

Stunning Federal-style brick home with exquisite appointments throughout
 

 

20 picturesque acres with lake, pasture, and woodland
 

 

5 bedrooms and 4.5 baths
 

 

5800 sq. ft. living space and 2400 sq. ft. basement
 

 

Formal living room; banquet dining with butler’s pantry; and luxurious foyer, gourmet kitchen, and morning room
 

 

3 fireplaces and 12 chandeliers
 

 

 

 

 

Clyde: Maude, look at this place! This is the house for us! Let’s make an offer right now. We can afford it!

 

Maude: Oh, Clyde, be serious. That house is way beyond our means.

 

Clyde: Well, I think we can afford it.

 

Maude: Honey, if we can afford it, pigs can fly.

 

Clyde: Look, do you want to live in a shack?    Besides, I called the real estate agent. She says it’s a real steal.

 

Maude: Well, what do you expect her to say? She’s looking for a commission.

 

Clyde: Sometimes I don’t understand you. Last week you were pushing for a really upscale place.

 

Maude: Clyde, we can’t make the payments on a place like that. We couldn’t even afford to heat it! And what on earth are we going to do with a lake?

 

Clyde: Honey, the payments would only be around $5,000 a month. How much do you think we could spend?

 

Maude: I’d say $1,800.

 

Clyde: Okay, how about $2,050?

 

Maude: Oh, for heaven’s sake! Yes, we could do $2,050!

 

Clyde: Well, how about $3,100?

 

Maude: Oh, Clyde, what is your point?

 

Clyde: So $3,100 is okay? How about $3,200? Stop me when I get to exactly where we can’t afford it.

 

Maude: Clyde, I can’t say exactly where it gets to be too expensive, but $5,000 a month is too much.

 

Clyde: Well, I think we can afford it.

 

Maude: Why?

 

Clyde: Because it’s within our means!

 

Maude: Clyde, you’re the one who’s always saying we have to cut back on our spending!

 

Clyde: Yes, but this’ll be a great investment!

 

Maude: And what makes you say that?

 

Clyde: Because we’re bound to make money on it.

 

Maude: Clyde, honey, you are going around in circles.

 

Clyde: Well, can you prove we can’t afford it?

 

Maude: Once we start spending money like drunken sailors, where will it end?  line-drawing  Next, we’ll have to get a riding mower, then a boat for that lake, a butler for the butler’s pantry—we’ll owe everybody in the state!

 

Clyde: Well, we don’t have to make up our minds right now. I’ll call the agent and tell her we’re sleeping on it.

 

Maude: Asleep and dreaming.

 

 

 

 

 

As Harold is driving down the road from Glenn County to Montclair, he crosses into Salem County and notices that the pavement deteriorates. “I guess they don’t keep up their roads very well in this county,” he says. Which of the following best fits the scenario?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

biased generalization

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

hasty generalization

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

neither biased nor hasty

 

 

 

 

“They say Japanese carmakers put out the best cars in the world, all things considered. But that can’t be right—the Toyota I bought last year had to be returned to the shop five times!” This is

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

a biased generalization.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

a hasty generalization.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

neither biased nor hasty.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As Harold is driving down the road from Glenn County to Montclair, he crosses into Salem County and notices that the pavement deteriorates. “I guess they don’t keep up their roads very well in this county,” he says. The sample in this passage is

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

roads in Glenn County.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

roads in Salem County.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

the road he’s driving on now.

 

 

 

 

“They say Japanese carmakers put out the best cars in the world, all things considered. But that can’t be right—the Toyota I bought last year had to be returned to the shop five times!” The population is

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

my Toyota.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Japanese cars.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

the best cars in the world.

 

 

 

 

To think that what holds true of a group automatically holds true of the individuals in the group is known as the fallacy of

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

composition.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

division.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

accident.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

hasty generalization.

 

 

 

 

 

“The legal drinking age should be increased. I’ll bet you can’t think of a reason not to.” Which of the following fallacies is present in this statement?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Misplacing the burden of proof

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Appeal to ignorance

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Perfectionist fallacy

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Straw man fallacy

 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

PHL 320 Week 4 Apply: Rhetorical Strategies and Fallacies
 

Complete the “Rhetorical Strategies and Fallacies” homework assignment in Connect®.

Note: You have only 1 attempt available to complete assignments. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don’t worry; this might happen after your due date.

 

 
 

Bobby may be a good bookkeeper….

Select a statement about Bobby that uses innuendo.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

But he has worked hard to get where he is at.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

But he has a good staff to help him out.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

But you would expect that from someone who majored in accounting like he did.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

But you’ll notice he has a ton of bills.

 

 

If the Superintendent is so committed to increasing the scores in public school….

Select a statement about the Superintendent that uses the loaded questions strategy.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Why are so many students failing and teachers resigning?

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Shouldn’t we do something nice for him?

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Why do we need to consider replacing him?

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Why don’t people notice?

 

 

 

Select a statement about college students that uses hyperbole.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

College students are too idealistic and don’t know what it’s like in the real world.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

If college students are so poor, why are they always riding around on fancy bikes and scooters?

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

While many students start college, not all will graduate.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

All college students will graduate.

 

 

 

I simply won’t go into that department store….

Select a statement that uses stereotype.

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

It’s full of snobbish people who disguise their happiness with designer handbags and shoes.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

It is way too far from where I live anyway.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

They have poor customer service.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

It never carries the clothes I like.

 

 

 

Sally had a hamburger for dinner and does not feel well.

Which of the following statements would result in the post hoc ergo propter hoc rhetorical fallacy?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

It was the hamburger that made her not feel well.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

She should not have eaten dinner.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Sally is overreacting because her hamburger was overcooked.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

There must be a flu bug going around.

 

 

 

Brianna is the top-performing cheerleader and captain of the cheer team.

Which of the following statements would result in the ad hominem rhetorical fallacy?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

She is the real reason the team is so good.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

However, we know she, like all cheerleaders, was selected because of her good looks.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

She has natural talent that most of the rest of the team don’t.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

She must spend a lot of time practicing to be so good.

 

 

 

 

I received a bonus within my first six weeks on the job.

Which of the following statements would result in the hasty generalization rhetorical fallacy?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

So I know I am going to receive a bonus often.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

I have heard the company is pretty generous when it comes to bonus opportunities.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

I am glad my efforts don’t go unnoticed.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

I worked hard to earn that bonus.

 

 

 

You can start exercising….

Which of the following statements would result in the either/or rhetorical fallacy?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

In order to fit in with the rest of us.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Or die at a young age.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Because it is the right thing to do.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

So that it becomes a habit.

 

 

 

He knows that diamond mining is a dangerous job.

Which of the following statements would result in the red herring or smoke screen fallacy?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

But he also knows that lots of other jobs are dangerous.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

But he has always been something of a daredevil.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

But how else can he earn his paycheck to care for his family?

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

But he knows he won’t have to work forever.

 

 

 

If you like to clean every day….

Which of the following statements would result in the slippery slope fallacy?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Then you will always have something on your agenda.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

You can know that your house will never be a mess.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

People are likely to notice.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

It could lead to you becoming OCD, so you probably should not clean every day.

 

 

Your employer has given you the task of increasing overall production within your department using the same number of permanent employees but no additional hours to complete the work. Which of the following is a possible solution?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Turning a blind eye while employees work overtime.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Incentivizing your employees to work harder.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Eliminating breaks and lunches.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Cutting vacation and sick time.

 

 

 

Your company wants to hire a third-party vendor to handle all of the customer service calls because they are a well-known leader in the industry with many clients. You are the manager of the customer service department for your company and have consistently reduced expenses over the past three years. Which of the following is an argument you could present to your employer to not hire a third-party vendor to handle customer service calls?

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Convince your employer that although the third party has many clients, not all are satisfied.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Show your employer where you could cut costs even further, making it more cost effective to keep customer service in house.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Impose strict new customer service policies on your department.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Let your employer know that you will resign if they pursue this option.

 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

PHL 320 Week 5 Practice: Week 5 Knowledge Check
 

Complete the “Week 5 Knowledge Check” in Connect®.

Note: You have unlimited attempts available to complete this practice assignment. The highest scored attempt will be recorded. These assignments have earlier due dates, so plan accordingly. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don’t worry, this might happen after your due date.

 

 
 

Virtue ethics is an abstruse ethical theory.

True or False

 

 

 

Reasoning used by jurists and attorneys in applying the law is both deductive and inductive.

True or False

 

 

In estimating the moral worth of what people do, utilitarianism seems to discount people’s intentions.

True or False

 

 

A moral imperative prescribes an action, not for the sake of some result, but simply because that action is our moral duty.

True or False

 

 

 

Legal reasoning and moral reasoning both lead to prescriptions about whether or not certain actions should be done.

True or False

 

 

 

Stare decisis is the doctrine that even though a court has pronounced a principle of law applicable to a certain set of facts, other judges should follow common sense in determining whether to apply that principle to other cases in which the facts are substantially the same.

True or False

 

 

 

Immanuel Kant’s deontologism urges people to act so as to produce the most happiness.

True or False

 

 

 

Identifying Reasons That are Helpful in Focusing Perception 2

Determine whether the following reasons are (1) helpful in focusing perception to elicit a favorable response, (2) helpful in focusing perception to elicit an unfavorable response, (3) too vague to focus perception, (4) false or implausible and therefore unable to focus perception, or (5) irrelevant to focusing perception.

 

The information you need is contained in the reasons, so try to visualize or imagine what the work is like from what is said. All of these are paraphrases of testimony given at a hearing in 1985 about a proposal to remove Tilted Arc,an immense abstract sculpture, from a plaza in front of a federal office building.

 

 

 

 

Tilted Arc is big and rusty.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Helpful in focusing perception to elicit a favorable response

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Helpful in focusing perception to elicit an unfavorable response

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Too vague to focus perception

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

False or implausible and therefore unable to focus perception

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Irrelevant to focusing perception

 

 

 

 

 

Because of its size, thrusting shape, and implacably uniform-rusting surface, Tilted Arc makes us feel hopeless, trapped, and sad. This sculpture would be interesting if we could visit it when we had time to explore these feelings, but it is too depressing to face every day on our way to work.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Helpful in focusing perception to elicit a favorable response

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Helpful in focusing perception to elicit an unfavorable response

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Too vague to focus perception

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

False or implausible and therefore unable to focus perception

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Irrelevant to focusing perception

 

 

 

 

 

Serra’s erotically realistic, precise rendering of the female figure in Tilted Arc exhibits how appealingly he can portray the soft circularity of a woman’s breast.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Helpful in focusing perception to elicit a favorable response

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Helpful in focusing perception to elicit an unfavorable response

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Too vague to focus perception

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

False or implausible and therefore unable to focus perception

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Irrelevant to focusing perception

 

 

 

 

 

Tilted Arc is sort of red; it probably isn’t blue.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Helpful in focusing perception to elicit a favorable response

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Helpful in focusing perception to elicit an unfavorable response

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Too vague to focus perception

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

False or implausible and therefore unable to focus perception

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Irrelevant to focusing perception

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

PHL 320 Week 5 Apply: Analyzing an Argument
 

Complete the “Analyzing an Argument” homework assignment in Connect®.

Note: You have only 1 attempt available to complete assignments. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don’t worry; this might happen after your due date.

 

 
 

Required information

 

For each of the following kinds of laws, pick at least one of the four grounds for justification—legal moralism, the harm principle, legal paternalism, and the offense principle—and construct an argument designed to justify the law. You may not agree either with the law or with the argument; the exercise is to see if you can connect the law to the (allegedly) justifying principle. For many laws, more than one kind of justification is possible, so there can be more than one good answer for many of these.

 

Overall instructor remarks:

Example—the harm principle. Shoplifting harms those from whom one steals. “Unfortunately, you did not appropriately answer the question.”

Laws against shoplifting

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