Management and Theory_Fall2019
There are a variety of views about the term "management". Traditionally, the term "management" refers to the activities involved in the four general functions listed below.
1) Planning, including identifying goals, objectives, methods, resources needed to carry out methods, responsibilities and dates for completion of tasks. Examples of planning are strategic planning, business planning, project planning, staffing planning, advertising and promotions planning.
2) Organizing resources to achieve the goals in an optimum fashion. Examples are organizing new departments, human resources, office and file systems and re-organizing businesses.
3) Leading, including to set direction for the organization, groups and individuals and also influence people to follow that direction. Examples are establishing strategic direction (vision, values, mission and / or goals) and championing methods of organizational performance management to pursue that direction.
4) Controlling, or coordinating, including the organization's systems, processes and structures to reach effectively and efficiently reach goals and objectives. This includes ongoing collection of feedback, and monitoring and adjustment of systems, processes and structures accordingly. Examples include use of financial controls, policies and procedures, performance management processes and measures to avoid risks.