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Spaceship earth - Our global responsibility?

Spaceship Earth or Spacecraft Earth is a world view encouraging everyone on Earth to act as a harmonious crew working toward the greater good.

Hearts Minds Media 2018

 

“THERE ARE NO PASSENGERS ON SPACESHIP EARTH, WE ARE ALL CREW”
- Marshall McLuhan

https://thisspaceshipearth.org/

 

 

The earliest known use[1] is a passage in Henry George's best known work, Progress and Poverty[2] (1879). From book IV, chapter 2:

It is a well-provisioned ship, this on which we sail through space. If the bread and beef above decks seem to grow scarce, we but open a hatch and there is a new supply, of which before we never dreamed. And very great command over the services of others comes to those who as the hatches are opened are permitted to say, "This is mine!"

George Orwell later paraphrases Henry George in The Road to Wigan Pier:

The world is a raft sailing through space with, potentially, plenty of provisions for everybody; the idea that we must all cooperate and see to it that everyone does his fair share of the work and gets his fair share of the provisions seems so blatantly obvious that one would say that no one could possibly fail to accept it unless he had some corrupt motive for clinging to the present system.

In 1965 Adlai Stevenson made a famous speech to the UN in which he said:

We travel together, passengers on a little space ship, dependent on its vulnerable reserves of air and soil; all committed for our safety to its security and peace; preserved from annihilation only by the care, the work, and, I will say, the love we give our fragile craft. We cannot maintain it half fortunate, half miserable, half confident, half despairing, half slave—to the ancient enemies of man—half free in a liberation of resources undreamed of until this day. No craft, no crew can travel safely with such vast contradictions. On their resolution depends the survival of us all.[3]

The following year, Spaceship Earth became the title of a book by a friend of Stevenson's, the internationally influential economist Barbara Ward.

Also in 1966, Kenneth E. Boulding, who was influenced by reading Henry George,[4] used the phrase in the title of an essay, The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth.[5] Boulding described the past open economy of apparently illimitable resources, which he said he was tempted to call the "cowboy economy", and continued: "The closed economy of the future might similarly be called the 'spaceman' economy, in which the earth has become a single spaceship, without unlimited reservoirs of anything, either for extraction or for pollution, and in which, therefore, man must find his place in a cyclical ecological system". (David Korten would take up the "cowboys in a spaceship" theme in his 1995 book When Corporations Rule the World.)

The phrase was also popularized by Buckminster Fuller, who published a book in 1968 under the title of Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth.[6] This quotation, referring to fossil fuels, reflects his approach:

…we can make all of humanity successful through science's world-engulfing industrial evolution provided that we are not so foolish as to continue to exhaust in a split second of astronomical history the orderly energy savings of billions of years' energy conservation aboard our Spaceship Earth. These energy savings have been put into our Spaceship's life-regeneration-guaranteeing bank account for use only in self-starter functions.

United Nations Secretary-General U Thant spoke of Spaceship Earth on Earth Day March 21, 1971 at the ceremony of the ringing of the Japanese Peace Bell: "May there only be peaceful and cheerful Earth Days to come for our beautiful Spaceship Earth as it continues to spin and circle in frigid space with its warm and fragile cargo of animate life."[7]

 

Epcot's Spaceship Earth

Spaceship Earth is the name given to the 54,864 m geodesic sphere that greets visitors at the entrance of Walt Disney World's Epcot theme park. Housed within the sphere is a dark ride that serves to explore the history of communications and promote Epcot's founding principles, "[a] belief and pride in man's ability to shape a world that offers hope to people everywhere."[8] A previous incarnation of the ride, narrated by actor Jeremy Irons and revised in 2008, was explicit in its message:

Like a grand and miraculous spaceship, our planet has sailed through the universe of time, and for a brief moment, we have been among its many passengers….We now have the ability and the responsibility to build new bridges of acceptance and co-operation between us, to create a better world for ourselves and our children as we continue our amazing journey aboard Spaceship Earth.[9]

David Deutsch has pointed out that the picture of Earth as a friendly "spaceship" habitat is difficult to defend even in metaphorical sense. The Earth environment is harsh and survival is constant struggle for life, including whole species extinction. Humans wouldn't be able to live in most of the areas where they are living now without knowledge necessary to build life-support systems such as houses, heating, water supply, etc.[10]

The term "Spaceship Earth" is frequently used on the labels of Emanuel Bronner's products to refer to the Earth.

 

 

Literature[]
·         Nicola Armaroli, Vincenzo Balzani: Energy for a Sustainable World – From the Oil Age to a Sun-Powered Future, Wiley-VCH 2011, ISBN 978-3-527-32540-5.

·         Nicola Armaroli, Vincenzo Balzani and Nick Serpone: Powering Planet Earth – Energy Solutions for the Future, Wiley-VCH 2013, ISBN 978-3-527-33409-4.

·         Italian original ion: Energia per l’Astronave Terra- Quanta ne usiamo, come la produciamo, che cosa ci riserva il futuro, Zanichelli 2008, ISBN 978-88-08-06391-5.

·         Sabine Höhler: Spaceship Earth in the Environmental Age, 1960-1990 (History and Philosophy of Technoscience, 4). London: Pickering & Chatto 2015, ISBN 978-1-84893-509-9.

 

Global citizenship is the rights, responsibilities and duties that come with being a member of the global entity as a citizen of a particular nation or place. The idea is that one’s identity transcends geography or political borders and that responsibilities or rights are derived from membership in a broader class: "humanity". This does not mean that such a person denounces or waives their nationality or other, more local identities, but such identities are given "second place" to their membership in a global community.[1] Extended, the idea leads to questions about the state of global society in the age of globalization.[2] In general usage, the term may have much the same meaning as "world citizen" or cosmopolitan, but it also has additional, specialized meanings in differing contexts. Various organizations, such as the World Service Authority, have advocated global citizenship.

Usage[]
Education[]
In education, the term is most often used to describe a worldview or a set of values toward which education is oriented (see, for example, the priorities of the Global Education First Initiative led by the Secretary-General of the United Nations).[3] The term "global society" is sometimes used to indicate a global studies set of learning objectives for students to prepare them for global citizenship (see, for example, the Global Studies Center at the University of Pittsburgh).[4]

Global citizenship education[]
Main article: Global Citizenship Education

Within the educational system, the concept of global citizenship education (GCED) is beginning to supersede or overarch movements such as multiculturaleducation, peace education, human rights education, Education for Sustainable Development and international education.[5] Additionally, GCED rapidly incorporates references to the aforementioned movements. The concept of global citizenship has been linked with awards offered for helping humanity.[6] Teachers are being given the responsibility of being social change agents.[7] Audrey Osler, director of the Centre for Citizenship and Human Rights Education, the University of Leeds, affirms that "Education for living together in an interdependent world is not an optional extra, but an essential foundation".[8]

With GCED gaining attention, scholars are investigating the field and developing perspectives. The following are a few of the more common perspectives:

·         Critical and transformative perspective. Citizenship is defined by being a member with rights and responsibilities. Therefore, GCED must encourage active involvement. GCED can be taught from a critical and transformative perspective, whereby students are thinking, feeling, and doing. In this approach, GCED requires students to be politically critical and personally transformative. Teachers provide social issues in a neutral and grade-appropriate way for students to understand, grapple with, and do something about.[9]

·         Worldmindedness. Graham Pike and David Selby view GCED as having two strands. Worldmindedness, the first strand, refers to understanding the world as one unified system and a responsibility to view the interests of individual nations with the overall needs of the planet in mind. The second strand, Child-centeredness, is a pedagogical approach that encourages students to explore and discover on their own and addresses each learner as an individual with inimitable beliefs, experiences, and talents.[10]

·         Holistic Understanding. The Holistic Understanding perspective was founded by Merry Merryfield, focusing on understanding the self in relation to a global community. This perspective follows a curriculum that attends to human values and beliefs, global systems, issues, history, cross-cultural understandings, and the development of analytical and evaluative skills.[7]

Philosophy[]
Global citizenship, in some contexts, may refer to a brand of ethics or political philosophy in which it is proposed that the core social, political, economic and environmental realities of the world today should be addressed at all levels—by individuals, civil society organizations, communities and nation states—through a global lens. It refers to a broad, culturally- and environmentally-inclusive worldview that accepts the fundamental interconnectedness of all things. Political, geographic borders become irrelevant and solutions to today's challenges are seen to be beyond the narrow vision of national interests. Proponents of this philosophy often point to Diogenes of Sinope (c. 412 B.C.) as an example, given his reported declaration that "I am a citizen of the world (κοσμοπολίτης, cosmopolites)" in response to a question about his place of origin.[11] A Sanskrit term, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam, has the meaning of "the world is one family".[12] The earliest reference to this phrase is found in the Hitopadesha, a collection of parables. In the Mahopanishad VI.71-73, ślokas describe how one finds the Brahman (the one supreme, universal Spirit that is the origin and support of the phenomenal universe). The statement is not just about peace and harmony among the societies in the world, but also about a truth that somehow the whole world has to live together like a family.[12]

Psychological Studies[]
Recently, global pollsters and psychologists have studied individual differences in the sense of global citizenship. Beginning in 2005, the World Values Survey, administered across almost 100 countries, included the statement, “I see myself as a world citizen.” For smaller studies, several multi-item scales have been developed, including Sam McFarland and colleagues’ Identification with All Humanity scale (e.g., “How much do you identify with (that is, feel a part of, feel love toward, have concern for) . . . all humans everywhere?”),[13] Anna Malsch and Alan Omoto’s Psychological Sense of Global Community (e.g., “I feel a sense of connection to people all over the world, even if I don’t know them personally”),[14] Gerhard Reese and colleagues’ Global Social Identity scale (e.g. “I feel strongly connected to the world community as a whole.”),[15] and Stephen Reysen and Katzarska-Miller's global citizenship identification scale (e.g., “I strongly identify with global citizens.”).[16] These measures are strongly related to one another, but they are not fully identical.[17]

Studies of the psychological roots of global citizenship have found that persons high in global citizenship are also high on the personality traits of openness to experience and agreeableness from the Big Five personality traits and high in empathy and caring. Oppositely, the authoritarian personality, the social dominance orientation and psychopathy are all associated with less global human identification. Some of these traits are influenced by hery as well as by early experiences, which, in turn, likely influence individuals' receptiveness to global human identification.[13]

Research has found that those who are high in global human identification are less prejudiced toward many groups, care more about international human rights, worldwide inequality, global poverty and human suffering. They attend more actively to global concerns, value the lives of all human beings more equally, and give more in time and money to international humanitarian causes. They tend to be more politically liberal on both domestic and international issues.[13] They want their countries to do more to alleviate global suffering.[16]

Following a social identity approach, Reysen and Katzarska-Miller tested a model showing the antecedents and outcomes of global citizenship identification (i.e., degree of psychological connection with global citizens).[16] Individuals’ normative environment (the cultural environment in which one is embedded contains people, artifacts, cultural patterns that promote viewing the self as a global citizen) and global awareness (perceiving oneself as aware, knowledgeable, and connected to others in the world) predict global citizenship identification. Global citizenship identification then predicts six broad categories of prosocial behaviors and values, including: intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and a felt responsibility to act.[18] Subsequent research has examined variables that influence the model such as: participation in a college course with global components,[19] perception of one’s global knowledge,[20] college professors' attitudes toward global citizenship,[21] belief in an intentional worlds view of culture,[22] participation in a fan group that promotes the identity,[23] use of global citizen related words when describing one's values, possible self as a global citizen,[24] religiosity and religious orientation,[25] threat to one’s nation,[26] interdependent self-construal prime,[27] perception of the university environment,[28] and social media usage.[29]

Aspects[]
Geography, sovereignty, and citizenship[]
At the same time that globalization is reducing the importance of nation-states,[30] the idea of global citizenship may require a redefinition of ties between civic engagement and geography. Face-to-face town hall meetings seem increasingly supplanted by electronic "town halls" not limited by space and time. Absentee ballotsopened the way for expatriates to vote while living in another country; the Internet may carry this several steps further. Another interpretation given by several scholars of the changing configurations of citizenship due to globalization is the possibility that citizenship becomes a changed institution; even if situated within territorial boundaries that are national, if the meaning of the national itself has changed, then the meaning of being a citizen of that nation changes.[31]

Tension among local, national, and global forces[]
An interesting feature of globalization is that, while the world is being internationalized, it’s also being localized at the same time.[32] The world shrinks as the local community (village, town, city) takes on greater and greater importance. This is reflected in the term glocalization, a portmanteau of the words "global" and "local". Mosco (1999) noted this feature and saw the growing importance of technopoles.[33] If this trend is true, it seems global citizens may be the glue that holds these separate entities together. Put another way, global citizens are people who can travel within these various boundaries and somehow still make sense of the world through a global lens.

Human rights[]

The lack of a universally recognized world body can put the initiative upon global citizens themselves to create rights and obligations. Rights and obligations as they arose at the formation of nation-states (e.g. the right to vote and obligation to serve in time of war) are being expanded. Thus, new concepts that accord certain "human rights" which arose in the 20th century are increasingly being universalized across nations and governments. This is the result of many factors, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948, the aftermath of World War II and the Holocaust and growing sentiments towards legitimizing marginalized peoples (e.g., pre-industrialized peoples found in the jungles of Brazil and Borneo). Couple this with growing awareness of our impact on the environment, and there is the rising feeling that citizen rights may extend to include the right to dignity and self-determination. If national citizenship does not foster these new rights, then global citizenship may seem more accessible.

One cannot overestimate the importance of human rights discourse in shaping public opinion. What are the rights and obligations of human beings trapped in conflicts? Or, incarcerated as part of ethnic cleansing? Equally striking, are the pre-industrialized tribes newly discovered by scientists living in the depths of dense jungle? These rights can be equated with the rise of global citizenship as normative associations, indicating a national citizenship model that is more closed and a global citizenship one that is more flexible and inclusive.[34] If true, this places a strain in the relationship between national and global citizenship.

UN General Assembly[]

On 10 December 1948, the UN General Assembly Adopted Resolution 217A (III), also known as "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights."[35]

Article 1 states that "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood." [36]

Article 2 states that "Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty."[37]

Article 13(2) states that "Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country." [38]

As evidence in today's modern world, events such as the Trial of Saddam Hussein have proven what British jurist A. V. Dicey said in 1885, when he popularized the phrase "rule of law" in 1885.[39] Dicey emphasized three aspects of the rule of law :[40]

1.   No one can be punished or made to suffer except for a breach of law proved in an ordinary court.

2.   No one is above the law and everyone is equal before the law regardless of social, economic, or political status.

3.   The rule of law includes the results of judicial decisions determining the rights of private persons.

US Declaration of Independence[]
The opening of the United States Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776, states as follows:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed;[41]

"Global citizenship in the United States" was a term used by former U.S. President Barack Obama in 2008 in a speech in Berlin.[42]

Support for global government[]
In contrast to questioning definitions, a counter-criticism can be found on the World Alliance of YMCA's website. An online article in YMYCA World emphasizes the importance of fostering global citizenship and global justice, and states, "Global citizenship might sound like a vague concept for academics but in fact it’s a very practical way of looking at the world which anyone, if given the opportunity, can relate to."[43] The author acknowledges the positive and negative outlooks towards globalization, and states, "In the context of globalisation, thinking and acting as global citizens is immensely important and can bring real benefits, as the YMCA experience shows."[43]

 

 

Social movements[]

Rights for all forms of life
 
World citizen[]
 
 

World Citizen flag by Garry Davis

 

World Citizen badge

In general, a world citizen is a person who places global citizenship above any nationalistic or local identities and relationships. An early expression of this value is found in Diogenes of Sinope (c. 412 B.C.; mentioned above), the founding father of the Cynic movement in Ancient Greece. Of Diogenes it is said: "Asked where he came from, he answered: 'I am a citizen of the world (kosmopolitês)'".[44] This was a ground-breaking concept because the broadest basis of social identity in Greece at that time was either the individual city-state or the Greeks (Hellenes) as a group. The Tamil poet Kaniyan Poongundran wrote in Purananuru, "To us all towns are one, all men our kin." In later years, political philosopher Thomas Paine would declare, "my country is the world, and my religion is to do good."[45] Today, the increase in worldwide globalization has led to the formation of a "world citizen" social movement under a proposed world government.[46] In a non-political definition, it has been suggested that a world citizen may provide value to society by using knowledge acquired across cultural contexts.[47]

Albert Einstein described himself as a world citizen and supported the idea throughout his life,[48] famously saying "Nationalism is an infantile disease. It is the measles of mankind."[49] World citizenship has been promoted by distinguished people including Garry Davis, who lived for 60 years as a citizen of no nation, only the world. Davis founded the World Service Authority in Washington, DC, which sells World Passports, a fantasy passport to world citizens.[50] In 1956 Hugh J. Schonfield founded the Commonwealth of World Citizens, later known by its Esperanto name "Mondcivitana Respubliko", which also issued a world passport; it declined after the 1980s.

The Bahá'í faith promotes the concept through its founder's proclamation (in the late 19th century) that "The Earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens."[51] As a term defined by the Bahá'í International Community in a concept paper shared at the 1st session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, New York, U.S.A. on 14–25 June 1993.[52]"World citizenship begins with an acceptance of the oneness of the human family and the interconnectedness of the nations of 'the earth, our home.' While it encourages a sane and legitimate patriotism, it also insists upon a wider loyalty, a love of humanity as a whole. It does not, however, imply abandonment of legitimate loyalties, the suppression of cultural diversity, the abolition of national autonomy, nor the imposition of uniformity. Its hallmark is 'unity in diversity.' World citizenship encompasses the principles of social and economic justice, both within and between nations; non-adversarial decision making at all levels of society; equality of the sexes; racial, ethnic, national and religious harmony; and the willingness to sacrifice for the common good. Other facets of world citizenship—including the promotion of human honour and dignity, understanding, amity, co-operation, trustworthiness, compassion and the desire to serve—can be deduced from those already mentioned."[52]

Mundialization[]
Philosophically, mundialization (French, mondialisation) is seen as a response to globalization’s "dehumanisation through [despatialised] planetarisation" (Teilhard de Chardin quoted in Capdepuy 2011).[53] An early use of mondialisation was to refer to the act of a city or a local authority declaring itself a "world citizen" city, by voting a charter stating its awareness of global problems and its sense of shared responsibility. The concept was promoted by the self-declared World Citizen Garry Davisin 1949, as a logical extension of the idea of individuals declaring themselves world citizens, and promoted by Robert Sarrazac, a former leader of the French Resistance who created the Human Front of World Citizens in 1945. The first city to be officially mundialised was the small French city of Cahors (only 20,000 in 2006), the capital city of the Département of Lot in central France, on 20 July 1949. Hundreds of cities mundialised themselves over a few years, most of them in France, and then it spread internationally, including to many German cities and to Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In less than a year, 10 General Councils (the elected councils of the French "Départements"), and hundreds of cities in France covering 3.4 million inhabitants voted mundialisation charters. One of the goals was to elect one delegate per million inhabitants to a People's World Constitutional Convention given the already then historical failure of the United Nations in creating a global institution able to negotiate a final world peace. To date, more than 1000 cities and towns have declared themselves World cities, including Beverly Hills, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, St. Louis, Philadelphia, Toronto, Hiroshima, Tokyo, Nivelles, and Königswinter.[54]

As a social movement, mundialization expresses the solidarity of populations of the globe and aims to establish institutions and supranational laws of a federativestructure common to them, while respecting the diversity of cultures and peoples. The movement advocates for a new political organization governing all humanity, involving the transfer of certain parts of national sovereignty to a Federal World Authority, Federal World Government and Federal World Court. Basing its authority on the will of the people, and developing new systems to draw the highest and best wisdom of all humanity into the task of governing our world, the collaborative governing system would be capable of solving the problems which call into question the future of man, such as hunger, water, war, peace-keeping, pollution and energy. The mundialization movement includes the declaration of specified territory - a city, town, or state, for example - as world territory, with responsibilities and rights on a world scale. Currently the nation-state system and the United Nations offer no way for the people of the world to vote for world officials or participate in governing our world. International treaties or agreements lack the force of law. Mundialization seeks to address this lack by presenting a way to build, one city at a time, such a system of true World Law based upon the sovereignty of the whole.

Earth Anthem[]
Author Shashi Tharoor feels that an Earth Anthem sung by people across the world can inspire planetary consciousness and global citizenship among people.[55]

Criticisms[]
Not all interpretations of global citizenship are positive. For example, Parekh advocates what he calls globally oriented citizenship, and states, "If global citizenship means being a citizen of the world, it is neither practicable nor desirable."[56] He argues that global citizenship, defined as an actual membership of a type of worldwide government system, is impractical and dislocated from one's immediate community.[56] He also notes that such a world state would inevitably be "remote, bureaucratic, oppressive, and culturally bland."[56] Parekh presents his alternate option with the statement: "Since the conditions of life of our fellow human beings in distant parts of the world should be a matter of deep moral and political concern to us, our citizenship has an inescapable global dimension, and we should aim to become what I might call a globally oriented citizen."[56] Parekh's concept of globally oriented citizenship consists of identifying with and strengthening ties towards one's political regional community (whether in its current state or an improved, revised form), while recognizing and acting upon obligations towards others in the rest of the world.[56]

Michael Byers, a professor in Political Science at the University of British Columbia, questions the assumption that there is one definition of global citizenship, and unpacks aspects of potential definitions. In the introduction to his public lecture, the UBC Internalization website states, "'Global citizenship' remains undefined. What, if anything, does it really mean? Is global citizenship just the latest buzzword?"[57] Byers notes the existence of stateless persons, whom he remarks ought to be the primary candidates for global citizenship, yet continue to live without access to basic freedoms and citizenship rights.[57] Byers does not oppose the concept of global citizenship, however he criticizes potential implications of the term depending on one's definition of it, such as ones that provide support for the "ruthlessly capitalist economic system that now dominates the planet."[57] Byers states that global citizenship is a "powerful term"[57] because "people that invoke it do so to provoke and justify action,"[57] and encourages the attendees of his lecture to re-appropriate it in order for its meaning to have a positive purpose, based on idealistic values.[57]

Neither is criticism of global citizenship anything new. Gouverneur Morris, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention (United States), criticized "citizens of the world" while he was on the floor of the convention; August 9, 1787. "As to those philosophical gentlemen, those Citizens of the World as they call themselves, He owned he did not wish to see any of them in our public Councils. He would not trust them. The men who can shake off their attachments to their own Country can never love any other. These attachments are the wholesome prejudices which uphold all Governments, Admit a Frenchman into your Senate, and he will study to increase the commerce of France: an Englishman, and he will feel an equal bias in favor of that of England."[58]

See also[World Peace]
World peace, or peace on Earth, is the concept of an ideal state of happiness, freedom and peace within and among all people and nations on earth. This idea of world non-violence is one motivation for people and nations to willingly cooperate, either voluntarily or by virtue of a system of governance that prevents warfare. Different cultures, religions, philosophies and organisations have varying concepts on how such a state would come about.

Various religious and secular organisations have the stated aim of achieving world peace through addressing human rights, technology, education, engineering, medicine or diplomacy used as an end to all forms of fighting. Since 1945, the United Nations and the 5 permanent members of its Security Council (the US, Russia, China, France and the UK) have operated under the aim to resolve conflicts without war or declarations of war. Nonetheless, nations have entered numerous military conflicts since then.

 

 

References[]
1.    Jump up^ Israel, Ronald C. (Spring|Summer 2012). "What Does it Mean to be a Global Citizen?" Kosmos.

2.    Jump up^ Shaw, Martin (2000). Global Society and International Relations: Sociological Concepts and Political Perspectives. Cambridge: Polity Press.

3.    Jump up^ "Priority #3: Foster Global Citizenship." Global Education First Initiative, Secretary-General of the United Nations.

4.    Jump up^ "Global Studies Center". University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 19 May 2017.

5.    Jump up^ Australian Government (2008). Global Perspectives: A framework for global education in Australian schools. Carlton South Victoria, Australia: Curriculum Corporation. ISBN 978 1 74200 075 6

6.    Jump up^ Jim Luce (1 June 2010). "Euro-American Women' s Council Global Forum and Awards Set For Athens in July". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2010-06-16. Dionysia-Theodora Avgerinopoulou is a Member of the Hellenic Parliament. She is also on the Executive Global Board of the EAWC. Orphans International Worldwide (OIWW) awarded her its Global Citizenship Award for Leadership in Helping Humanity in New York in February.

7.    ^ Jump up to:a b Mundy, K., et al. (eds). Comparative and International Education. New York: Economic Policy Institute and Teachers College. ISBN 978-0807748817

8.    Jump up^ Osler, Audrey and Hugh Starkey (2010). Teachers and Human Rights Education.London:Trentham Books. ISBN 978-1858563848

9.    Jump up^ O’Sullivan, M. (2008). "You can’t criticize what you don’t understand: Teachers as social change agents in neo liberal times." Pp. 113-126 in O’Sullivan, Michael & K. Pashby (eds.) Citizenship in the era of globalization: Canadian perspectives. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.

10. Jump up^ Pike, G. & D. Selby (2000). In the Global Classroom 2. Toronto: Pippin.

11. Jump up^ Diogenes Laertius, "The Lives of Eminent Philosophers", Book VI, Chapter 2, line 63.

12. ^ Jump up to:a b Malhotra, Rajiv. (2014-01-14). Indra's Net. Harper Collins, India. ISBN 9789351362487.

13. ^ Jump up to:a b c McFarland, S. Webb; Brown, D. (2012). "All humanity is my ingroup: A measure and studies of Identification with All Humanity". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 103: 830–853. doi:10.1037/a0028724. PMID 22708625.

14. Jump up^ Malsch, A. M., & Omoto, A. M. (2007). Prosocial behavior beyond borders: Understanding a psychological sense of global community. Claremont, CA: Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, Claremont Graduate University.

15. Jump up^ Reese, G.; Proch, J.; Cohrs, J.C. (2014). "Individual differences in responses to global inequality". Analyses of Social issues and Public Policy. 14: 217–238. doi:10.1080/00224545.2014.992850.

16. ^ Jump up to:a b c Reysen, S.; Katzarska-Miller, I. (2013). "A model of global citizenship: Antecedents and outcomes". International Journal of Psychology. 48: 858–870. doi:10.1080/00207594.2012.701749.

17. Jump up^ McFarland, S.; Hornsby, W. (2015). "An analysis of five measures of global human identification". European Journal of Social Psychology. 45: 806–817. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2161.

18. Jump up^ Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva (2013). "Student pathways to global citizenship". In Boyle, Christopher. Student Learning: Improving Practice. New York: Nova. pp. 121–137. ISBN 978-1-62618-938-6.

19. Jump up^ Reysen, Stephen; Larey, Loretta; Katzarska-Miller, Iva (2012). "College course curriculum and global citizenship". International Journal of Development Education and Global Learning. 4 (3): 27–40. doi:10.18546/ijdegl.04.3.03. ISSN 1756-526X.

20. Jump up^ Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva; Gibson, Shonda; Hobson, Braken (2013). "World knowledge and global citizenship: Factual and perceived world knowledge as predictors of global citizenship identification". International Journal of Development Education and Global Learning. 5 (1): 49–68. doi:10.18546/ijdegl.05.1.04.

21. Jump up^ Gibson, Shonda; Reysen, Stephen (2013). "Representations of global citizenship in a school environment". International Journal of Education Research. 8 (1): 116–128.

22. Jump up^ Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva (2013). "Intentional worlds and global citizenship". Journal of Global Citizenship and Equity Education. 3 (1): 34–52.

23. Jump up^ Plante, Courtney; Roberts, Sharon; Reysen, Stephen; Gerbasi, Kathleen (2014). ""One of us": Engagement with fandoms and global citizenship identification". Psychology of Popular Media Culture. 3 (1): 49–64. doi:10.1037/ppm0000008.

24. Jump up^ Blake, Marion; Reysen, Stephen (2014). "The influence of possible selves on global citizenship identification". International Journal of Development Education and Global Learning. 6 (3): 63–78. doi:10.18546/ijdegl.06.3.05.

25. Jump up^ Katzarska-Miller, Iva; Barnsley, Carole; Reysen, Stephen (2014). "Global citizenship identification and religiosity". Archive for the Psychology of Religion. 36 (3): 344–367. doi:10.1163/15736121-12341291.

26. Jump up^ Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva; Salter, Phia; Hirko, Caroline (2014). "Blurring group boundaries: The impact of subgroup threats on global citizenship". Cultural Encounters, Conflicts, and Resolutions. 1 (2).

27. Jump up^ Gibson, Shonda; Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva (2014). "Independent and interdependent self-construal and global citizenship". International Journal of Business and Public Administration. 11 (2): 62–72.

28. Jump up^ Blake, Marion; Pierce, Lindsey; Gibson, Shonda; Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva (2015). "University environment and global citizenship identification". Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology. 5 (1): 97–107. doi:10.5539/jedp.v5n1p97.

29. Jump up^ Lee, Romeo; Baring, Rito; Sta Maria, Madelene; Reysen, Stephen (2015). "Attitude toward technology, social media usage, and grade point average as predictors of global citizenship identification in Filipino university students". International Journal of Psychology. doi:10.1002/ijop.12200.

30. Jump up^ Scholte, Jan-Aart (2005). "Chapter 6: Globalization and Governance". Globalization: A Critical Introduction. Palgrave.

31. Jump up^ Sassen, Saskia (2003). Towards post-national and denationalized citizenship (PDF). New York: Sage. p. 286.

32. Jump up^ Roudometof, Victor (2005). "Translationalism, Cosmopolitanism, and Glocalization". Current Sociology. 53 (1): 113–135. doi:10.1177/0011392105048291.

33. Jump up^ Joel Stratte-McClure (2 October 2000). "A French Exception to the Science Park Rule". Time EUROPE Magazine. Retrieved 2010-06-16.

34. Jump up^ Alan C. Cairns; John C. Courtney; Peter MacKinnon; Hans J. Michelmann; David E. Smith (1999). "Citizenship, Diversity, and Pluralism: Canadian and Comparative Perspectives". McGill-Queen's University Press. Retrieved 2010-06-16.

35. Jump up^ "History of the Document." U.N.: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

36. Jump up^ "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1".

37. Jump up^ "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 2".

38. Jump up^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 13(2)".

39. Jump up^ Dicey, Albert. (1885). An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution.

40. Jump up^ Palekar, S.A. (2008). Comparative Politics and Government. (Pp.64-65), New Dehli: PHI Learning, Pvt. Lmt..ISBN 978-8120333352

41. Jump up^ s:United States Declaration of Independence

42. Jump up^ Mike Allen (24 Jul 2008). "Obama Promises To 'remake The World'". CBS News. Retrieved 2010-06-16.

43. ^ Jump up to:a b Aris & June 2007

44. Jump up^ Diogenes Laertius, "The Lives of Eminent Philosophers", Chapter VI, line 63.

45. Jump up^ Thomas Paine (1792). The Rights of Man. Retrieved 6 August 2015.

46. Jump up^ "World Government of World Citizens". Retrieved 10 June 2014.

47. Jump up^ "the utmost global citizen". Global Culture. 2007.

48. Jump up^ Einstein - World Citizen, Erasing National Boundaries Archived 4 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine., American Museum of Natural History

49. Jump up^ Viereck, George Sylvester (26 October 1929), "What Life Means to Einstein: An Interview by George Sylvester Viereck", The Saturday Evening Post: 117, http://www.saturdayeveningpost.com/wp-content/uploads/satevepost/what_life_means_to_einstein.pdf retrieved on 7 November 2013

50. Jump up^ My Country Is the World By Garry Davis

51. Jump up^ Bahá'u'lláh (1994) [1873-92]. Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 167. ISBN 0-87743-174-4.

52. ^ Jump up to:a b Bahá'í International Community (1993-06-14). "World Citizenship: A Global Ethic for Sustainable Development". 1st session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. New York, NY.

53. Jump up^ Capdepuy, Vincent (2011). "Au prisme des mots". Cybergeo: European Journal of Geography.

54. Jump up^ "LIST OF MUNDIALIZED COMMUNITIES AND TOWNS". Retrieved 5 May 2016.

55. Jump up^ Indian diplomat pens anthem for earth The New Indian Express 5 June 2013

56. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Parekh, B (2003). "Cosmopolitanism and Global Citizenship". Review of International Studies. 29: 3–17. doi:10.1017/s0260210503000019.

57. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Byers, Michael (2005). "The Meanings of Global Citizenship". UBC Global Citizenship Speaker Series. Archived from the original on 15 April 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2009{{inconsistent citations}}

58. Jump up^ "Notes on the Debates in the Federal Convention". Yale University Avalon Project.

Bibliography[]
·         "For the Love of the World". Time. 13 June 1949. Retrieved 2007-05-11.

·         "Thoughts & Afterthoughts". Time. 9 October 1950. Retrieved 2007-05-11.

·         Briggs, Caroline (23 July 2005). "Sad farewell to 'world citizen'". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-05-11.

·         Thompson, Allan (14 December 2006). "A double standard for politicians' dual citizenship". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007.

·         Singh Jaiswal, Anjali (19 August 2005). "Straight answers". The Times of India. Retrieved 2007-05-11.

·         Kaye, Margaret (7 June 1995). "People: Douglas Mattern: toward a world without borders". Palo Alto Online. Retrieved 2007-05-11.

·         Bahá'u'lláh (1988). "Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas". US Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Retrieved 2008-03-05.

·         A World Citizen Program site

·         Primary School Global Citizenship site

·         Cosmopolitanism at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

·         Global Culture Essays on the influence of Global Citizens

·         Living in the World Risk Society by Ulrich Beck at the London School of Economics

·         Great Transition Initiative Paper Series Global Politics and Institutions, paper #3, and Dawn of the Cosmopolitan: The Hope of a Global Citizens Movement, paper #15, explore the potential for the emergence of a cosmopolitan identity and corresponding institutions.

Further reading[]
·         Bauman, Zygmunt, Intimations of Postmodernity (1992: Routledge, London)

·         Bellamy, Richard, "Citizenship beyond the nation state: the case of Europe," from Political Theory in Transition, ed by Noël O’Sullivan (2000: Routledge, London)

·         Bennett, W. Lance, News: the Politics of Illusion (1996: Longman, New York)

·         Bennett, W. Lance, "Consumerism and Global Citizenship: Lifestyle Politics, Permanent Campaigns, and International Regimes of Democratic Accountability." Unpublished paper presented at the International Seminar on Political Consumerism, Stockholm University, 30 May 2001.

·         Best, Steven & Kellner, Douglas, The Postmodern Turn (1997: Guilford Press, New York)

·         Cabrera, Luis, The Practice of Global Citizenship (2010: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge)

·         Clarke, Paul Berry, Deep Citizenship ( 1996: Pluto Press, London)

·         Eriksen, Erik & Weigård, Jarle, "The End of Citizenship: New Roles Challenging the Political Order" in The Demands of CitizenshipI, ed by Catriona McKinnon & Iain Hampsher-Monk (2000: Continuum, London)

·         Franck, Thomas M., The Empowered Self: Law and Society in the Age of Individualism (1999: Oxford University Press, Oxford)

·         Henderson, Hazel (2000). "Transnational Corporations and Global Citizenship". American Behavioral Scientist. 43 (8): 1231–1261. doi:10.1177/00027640021955847.

·         Iyer, Pico, The Global Soul (2000: Alfred A. Knopf, New York).

·         Jacobson, David, Rights across Borders: Immigration and the Decline of Citizenship (1996: Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore)

·         Lie, Rico & Servaes, Jan, "Globalization: consumption and identity – towards researching nodal points," in The New Communications Landscape, ed by Georgette Wang, Jan Servaes and Anura Goonasekera (2000: Routledge, London)

·         Kaspersen, Lars Bo, "State and Citizenship Under Transformation in Western Europe" in Public Rights, Public Rules: Constituting Citizens in the World Polity and National Policy, ed by Connie L. McNeely (1998: Garland, New York)

·         Kennedy, John F., Profiles in Courage (1956: Harper & Brothers, New York)

·         Preston, P.W., Political/Cultural Identity: Citizens and Nations in a Global Era (1997: Sage, London)

·         Scammell, Margarett, "Internet and civic engagement: Age of the citizen-consumer" found at https://web.archive.org/web/20050304033622/http://jsis.artsci.washington.edu/programs/cwesuw/scammell.htm

·         Schuler, Douglas, "Creating the World Citizen Parliament", May–June, 2013. ACM Interactions, found at http://interactions.acm.org/archive/view/may-june-2013/creating-the-world-citizen-parliament

·         Steenbergen, Bart van, "The Condition of Citizenship" in The Condition of Citizenship, ed by Bart van Steenbergen (1994: Sage Publications, London)

·         Swanson, D.M. Parallaxes and paradoxes of global citizenship: Critical reflections and possibilities of praxis in/through an international online course. In Lynnette Schulz, Ali Abdi & George Richardson (Eds.), Global Citizenship Education and Post Secondary Institutions: Policies, Practices and Possibilities, (pp. 120–139). (2011: Peter Lang, New York)

·         Swanson, D.M. Value in Shadows: A critical contribution to Values Education in our times. In T. Lovat and R. Toomey (Ed.), International Research Handbook on Values Education and Student Wellbeing. (July, 2010: Springer Press, New York)

·         Swanson, D.M. The owl spreads its wings: global and international education within the local from critical perspectives. In Y. Hèbert & A. Abdi (Eds.), Intensification of International Education. (2011: Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, Netherlands) [Series: Comparative and International Education: A Diversity of Voices. Series ors: Allan Pitman, Vandra Masemann, Miguel Pereya]

·         Turner, Bryan D., "Postmodern Culture/Modern Citizens" in The Condition of Citizenship, ed by Bart van Steenbergen (1994: Sage Publications, London)

·         Weale, Albert, "Citizenship Beyond Borders" in The Frontiers of Citizenship, ed by Ursula Vogel & Michael Moran (1991: St. Martin’s Press, New York)

·         Links

·          

·         UBC Defining and Modeling World Citizen

·         The Spirit of Global Belonging: Perspectives from Some Humanity-Oriented Icons by Dr. Mohammad Omar Farooq

·         Christian Aid's Resource for Global Citizenship Education

·         Oxfam: Women and citizenship in global teacher education: The Global-ITE project

·         "Civis Mundi". Matthew R. Foster. 2009-04-08. Retrieved 2009-04-08. Civisne Mundi Es? Civis Mundi Sum!

·         The Call for a World Constitutional Convention

·         Hamilton Mundialization Committee

·         Mundailization Committee | City of Burlington

·         History of the MUNDIALIZATIONS

References[]
1.    Jump up^ Kalen, San (2010). "ECOLOGY COMES OF AGE: NEPA'S LOST MANDATE". DUKE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW & POLICY FORUM. 21:113 (Fall). Retrieved 5 March 2016.

2.    Jump up^ The text on wikisource differs from versions available here and hereArchived 2005-09-09 at the Wayback Machine..

3.    Jump up^ Speech to the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland, July 9, 1965

4.    Jump up^ King, J. E. "Economic Exiles". Palgrave Macmillan, 2014

5.    Jump up^ Boulding, Kenneth E. (1966). "The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth". Retrieved 2007-09-07.

6.    Jump up^ Fuller, Buckminster (1963). Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. ISBN 0-525-47433-1. Archived from the original on 2010-07-17. The quotation is from Section 8: The regenerative landscape Archived2010-08-23 at the Wayback Machine..

7.    Jump up^ Lawrence, Lee; John McConnell (July 3, 1999). "Earth Day: Past, Present, Future". Wish Only Well. Retrieved 2007-09-07.

8.    Jump up^ Korkis, Jim. "WDW Chronicles: 1982 Opening of Epcot Center". http://allears.net/ae/issue678.htm. External link in |website= (help);

9.    Jump up^ Irons, Jeremy. "SE Script - Irons Version". http://www.intercot.com/edc/SpaceshipEarth/spscript.html. External link in |website= (help);

10. Jump up^ <David Deutsch (2011). The Beginning of Infinity. ISBN 978-0-14-196969-5.

 

 

 

Alternative living – Community living projects with ecological theming example

The Venus Project proposes a holistic approach with a global socio-economic system that utilizes the most current technological and scientific advances to provide the highest possible living standard for all people on Earth. The proposed system is called Resource Based Economy. The term and meaning was coined by Jacque Fresco, the founder of The Venus Project.

In a Resource Based Economy all goods and services are available to all people without the need for means of exchange such as money, credits, barter or any other means. For this to be achieved all resources must be declared as the common heritage of all Earth’s inhabitants. Equipped with the latest scientific and technological marvels mankind could reach extremely high productivity levels and create abundance of resources.

Resource Based Economy concerns itself with three main factors, namely Environmental, Technological and Human. We invite you to investigate further into these factors and discover more about The Venus Project and Resource Based Economy.

https://youtu.be/PIMy0QBSQWo - Outline

The plans of The Venus Project offer society a broader spectrum of choices based on the scientific possibilities directed toward a new era of peace and sustainability for all. Through the implementation of a global Resourced Based Economy, and a multitude of innovative and environmentally friendly technologies directly applied to the social system, The Venus Project proposals will dramatically reduce crime, poverty, hunger, homelessness, and many other pressing problems that are common throughout the world today.

One of the cornerstones of the organization’s findings is the fact that many of the dysfunctional behaviors of today’s society stem directly from the dehumanizing environment of a monetary system. In addition, automation has resulted in the technological replacement of human labor by machines and eventually most people will not have the purchasing power to buy the goods and services turned out.

The Venus Project proposes a system in which automation and technology would be intelligently integrated into an overall holistic socio-economic design where the primary function would be to maximize the quality of life rather than profits. This project also introduces a set of workable and practical values.

This is also in perfect accord with the spiritual aspects and ideals found in most religions throughout the world. What sets The Venus Project apart, however, is that it proposes to translate these ideals into a working reality.

Phase 1: Research Center

The first phase of The Venus Project’s long-term plans has already been completed. Jacque Fresco, futurist, inventor, industrial designer and founder of The Venus Project and his associate Roxanne Meadows have completed the construction of a 21-acre research center in Venus, Florida to help present the proposals of The Venus Project. Videos, CDs and DVDs, posters, brochures, models, renderings and books, such as The Best That Money Can’t Buy: Beyond Politics, Poverty, & War, have been created to help raise awareness about this project and its many proposals.

Phase 2: Documentaries and a Major Motion Picture

Phase Two includes the production of documentaries to help introduce this direction to the world. Two major documentaries have already been completed Paradise or Oblivion and The Choice is Ours.  

Phase Two also includes a full-length feature film that will depict how a world embracing the proposals advanced by The Venus Project would work. This film would provide a positive vision of a peaceful society in which all human beings form a global family on planet Earth. A civilization in which all people are engaged in the pursuit of a better understanding of the world they share. This film has been designed to be an entertaining and educational experience for both adults and children.

Phase 3: Experimental Research City

To test its designs and proposals, The Venus Project is working towards putting its ideals into practice by the construction of an experimental research city. This new experimental research city would be devoted to working towards the aims and goals of The Venus Project, which are:

Realizing the declaration of the world’s resources as being the common heritage of all people.
Transcending the artificial boundaries that currently and arbitrarily separate people.
Replacing money-based nationalistic economies with a resource-based world economy.
Assisting in stabilizing the world’s population through education and voluntary birth control.
Reclaiming and restoring the natural environment to the best of our ability.
Redesigning cities, transportation systems, agricultural industries, and industrial plants so that they are energy efficient, clean, and able to conveniently serve the needs of all people.
Gradually outgrowing corporate entities and governments, (local, national, or supra-national) as means of social management.
Sharing and applying new technologies for the benefit of all nations.
Developing and using clean renewable energy sources.
Manufacturing the highest quality products for the benefit of the world’s people.
Requiring environmental impact studies prior to construction of any mega projects.
Encouraging the widest range of creativity and incentive toward constructive endeavor.
Outgrowing nationalism, bigotry, and prejudice through education.
Eliminating elitism, technical or otherwise.
Arriving at methodologies by careful research rather than random opinions.
Enhancing communication in schools so that our language is relevant to the physical conditions of the world.
Providing not only the necessities of life, but also offering challenges that stimulate the mind while emphasizing individuality rather than uniformity.
Finally, preparing people intellectually and emotionally for the changes and challenges that lie ahead.
Within the experimental city, a theme park is also planned that will both entertain and inform visitors about the possibilities for humane and environmentally friendly life-styles planned by The Venus Project. It will feature intelligent houses; high-efficiency, non polluting transportation systems; advanced computer technology; and a number of other innovations that can add value to the lives of all people – in a very short period of time.

A circular city would be a transitional phase and could evolve from a semi-cooperative money-oriented society to a resource based economy. This could be the prototype for a series of cities to be constructed in various places throughout the world. The rate of progress will depend on the availability of funds raised during the early stages and the people who identify with , participate in, and support the aims and direction of The Venus Project.

As these new communities develop and become more widely accepted, they may very well form the basis of a new civilization, preferably through the process of evolution rather than revolution.

No one can actually predict the future. We can only extrapolate on present information and trends. Population growth, technological change, worldwide environmental conditions, and available resources are the primary criteria for future projections.

There is no single philosophy or point of view whether religious, political, scientific, or ideological, that someone would not take issue with. We feel certain, however, that the only aspects of The Venus Project that may appear threatening are those which others project onto it.

The Venus Project is neither Utopian nor Orwellian, nor does it reflect the dreams of impractical idealists. Instead, it presents attainable goals requiring only the intelligent application of what we already know. The only limitations are those which we impose upon ourselves.

 

24 Of The Most Beautiful Quotes About Nature
Celebrate Earth Day with these 24 wonderful quotes.

 

1. The poetry of earth is never dead – John Keats, On the Grasshopper and the cricket

2. "I felt my lungs inflate with the onrush of scenery—air, mountains, trees, people. I thought, 'This is what it is to be happy.'"

—Sylvia Plath, The Bell Jar

3. "Not just beautiful, though—the stars are like the trees in the forest, alive and breathing. And they're watching me."

—Haruki Murakami, Kafka on the Shore

4. "'Is the spring coming?' he said. 'What is it like?' ...

'It is the sun shining on the rain and the rain falling on the sunshine, and things pushing up and working under the earth.'"

—Frances Hodgson Burnett, The Secret Garden

 

Jarry Lee / BuzzFeed / Thinkstock

6. "If we surrendered

to earth's intelligence

we could rise up rooted, like trees."

—Rainer Maria Rilke, Rilke's Book of Hours: Love Poems to God

7. "The glitter in the sky looks as if I could scoop it all up in my hands and let the stars swirl and touch one another, but they are so distant, so very far apart, that they cannot feel the warmth of each other, even though they are made of burning."

—Beth Revis, Across the Universe

8. "I wonder if the snow loves the trees and fields, that it kisses them so gently? And then it covers them up snug, you know, with a white quilt; and perhaps it says 'Go to sleep, darlings, till the summer comes again.'"

―Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland & Through the Looking-Glass

 


Jarry Lee / BuzzFeed / Thinkstock

10. "This grand show is eternal. It is always sunrise somewhere; the dew is never all dried at once; a shower is forever falling; vapor is ever rising. Eternal sunrise, eternal sunset, eternal dawn and gloaming, on sea and continents and islands, each in its turn, as the round earth rolls."

—John Muir, John of the Mountains: The Unpublished Journals of John Muir

11. "Snow was falling,

so much like stars

filling the dark trees

that one could easily imagine

its reason for being was nothing more

than prettiness."

—Mary Oliver, "Snowy Night"

12. "Nature's first green is gold,

Her hardest hue to hold.

Her early leaf's a flower;

But only so an hour.

Then leaf subsides to leaf.

So Eden sank to grief,

So dawn goes down to day.

Nothing gold can stay."

―Robert Frost, "Nothing Gold Can Stay"

 


Jarry Lee / BuzzFeed / Thinkstock

14. "Quiet stars and the still of expectation. The eucalyptus branches heavy with evening dew, their feet shuffling woodchips, braiding eights in the silver grass, and edging hillocks from the first mulch of fall."

—Will Chancellor, A Brave Man Seven Storeys Tall

15. "The sea is emotion incarnate. It loves, hates, and weeps. It defies all attempts to capture it with words and rejects all shackles. No matter what you say about it, there is always that which you can't."

—Christopher Paolini, Eragon

16. "But especially he loved to run in the dim twilight of the summer midnights, listening to the subdued and sleepy murmurs of the forest, reading signs and sounds as a man may read a book, and seeking for the mysterious something that called—called, waking or sleeping, at all times, for him to come."

—Jack London, The Call of the Wild

 


Jarry Lee / BuzzFeed / Thinkstock

18. "'To sit in the shade on a fine day, and look upon verdure, is the most perfect refreshment.'"

—Jane Austen, Mansfield Park

19. "Those who contemplate the beauty of the earth find reserves of strength that will endure as long as life lasts. ... There is something infinitely healing in the repeated refrains of nature — the assurance that dawn comes after night, and spring after winter."

—Rachel Carson, Silent Spring

20. "These people have learned not from books, but in the fields, in the wood, on the river bank. Their teachers have been the birds themselves, when they sang to them, the sun when it left a glow of crimson behind it at setting, the very trees, and wild herbs."

―Anton Chekhov, "A Day in the Country"

 


Jarry Lee / BuzzFeed / Thinkstock

22. "There is a pleasure in the pathless woods,

There is a rapture on the lonely shore,

There is society, where none intrudes,

By the deep Sea, and music in its roar:

I love not Man the less, but Nature more."

—Lord Byron, "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"

23. "Nature's peace will flow into you as sunshine flows into trees. The winds will blow their own freshness into you, and the storms their energy, while cares will drop off like autumn leaves."

—John Muir, Our National Parks

24. "I felt like lying down by the side of the trail and remembering it all. The woods do that to you, they always look familiar, long lost, like the face of a long-dead relative, like an old dream, like a piece of forgotten song drifting across the water, most of all like golden eternities of past childhood or past manhood and all the living and the dying and the heartbreak that went on a million years ago and the clouds as they pass overhead seem to testify (by their own lonesome familiarity) to this feeling."

—Jack Kerouac, The Dharma Bums

 

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