Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and Head of the Commonwealth of Nations. Great
Britain was formed 310 years ago by the Act of Union between England and Scotland on 1st April 1707. More about Great Britain and the
As well as the United Kingdom, she is Queen of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua
New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, and Saint Kitts
and Nevis, where she is represented by Governors-General. The sixteen countries of which she is Queen are known as Commonwealth
Realms, and their combined population is 150 million.
She is Head of the Commonwealth of Nations comprising 53 member states and over 20% of the Word's land in North America, South
America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania. The aims of the Commonwealth include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good
governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism, and world peace. The 2.3 billion people in the
member states account for almost a third of the world's population.
Her reign of over 66 years has seen 13 Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, and numerous Prime Ministers in the Commonwealth
Realms of which she is (or was) also Head of State; between them she has had a total of over 150 Prime Ministers including 12
Canadian and 17 Australian Prime Ministers during her reign. There have been 13 US Presidents during her reign.
English Kings and Queens - Historical Timeline
Consider : John Locke’s opposition to royal rule – Power without election
John Locke (1632–1704) is among the most influential political philosophers of the modern period. In the Two Treatises of Government,
he defended the claim that men are by nature free and equal against claims that God had made all people naturally subject to a
monarch. He argued that people have rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and property, that have a foundation independent of the
laws of any particular society. Locke used the claim that men are naturally free and equal as part of the justification for u nderstanding
legitimate political government as the result of a social contract where people in the state of nature condit ionally transfer some of their
rights to the government in order to better ensure the stable, comfortable enjoyment of their lives, liberty, and property. S ince
governments exist by the consent of the people in order to protect the rights of the people and promote the public good, governments
that fail to do so can be resisted and replaced with new governments. Locke is thus also important for his defense of the rig ht of
revolution. Locke also defends the principle of majority rule and the separation of leg islative and executive powers. In the Letter
Concerning Toleration, Locke denied that coercion should be used to bring people to (what the ruler believes is) the true religion and also
denied that churches should have any coercive power over their members. Locke elaborated on these themes in his later political
writings, such as the Second Letter on Toleration and Third Letter on Toleration.