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C453 Clinical Microbiology Study Questions Module 1: Types of Microorganisms 1) Describe the basic characteristics of bacteria. • Smallest of all organisms, comes in different shapes and size and arrangements. 2) Describe the components of the followin

C453 Clinical Microbiology Study Questions

Module 1:  Types of Microorganisms

1)      Describe the basic characteristics of bacteria.

·         Smallest of all organisms, comes in different shapes and size and arrangements.

2)      Describe the components of the following cell walls, including the size of the peptidoglycan layer and fully describe any unique components of the cell wall:

a.       Gram positive

·         Has a thick peptidoglycan (up to 90%). Very little protein. Has to be kept in isotonic solution. Lack outer membrane and periplasmic space. Become protoplasts if cell wall is destroyed.

b.      Gram negative

·         Cell wall is thin. Various polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids. Wide periplasmic space which houses toxins and enzymes that destroy substances that may harm the bacteria. If cell wall is digested away it becomes spheroplast. Do not retain crystal-violet iodine.

c.       Acid-fast

·         Thick cell wall but smaller peptidoglycan. Grow slow because of lipids impede entry of nutrients in the cell. Stain as gram-positive.

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