1) Transpalatal bars
2) Lingual arches
3) Rectangular loops
4) Root correction springs
The efficiency and versatility of these appliances were the selection criteria for this manual. They are intended to ADD UPP to your repertoire, to be an alternative in cases where specific and precise movements are needed.
*About the author: Dr Gustavo is a researcher and Associate Professor at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. He also published several scientific papers in the field of biomechanics (especially biology of tooth movement) and he is the creator of the blog Essential Biomechanics. Qualifications: Master and PhD in Physiology & Orthodontics (State University of Campinas, Brazil) with Post-Doctorate stage at University of Aarhus, Denmark